Z jednej strony mając diagram laminowania i powierzchnię wyrobu powinien poradzić sobie z tym każdy kto umie policzyć objętość prostopadłościanu i ma orientację w przeliczaniu jednostek, jednak biorąc pod uwagę fakt, że laminat to nie tylko żywica i zbrojenie szklane, chciałbym pochylić się nad tym zagadnieniem bardziej i przedstawić kilka sposobów obliczania wagi wyrobu z laminatu.
Gęstość żelkotów to od 1,1 kg/dm3 do 1,3kg/dm3 przyjmujemy średnią 1,2kg/dm3, czyli inaczej mówiąc 1200kg/m3.  Przyjmuje się że powinno się nakładać około 0,8-0,9kg/m2 co daje nam grubość 0,7-0,8mm utwardzonego żelkotu.

Gęstość topkotów to od 1,1 kg/dm3 do 1,3 kg/dm3, przyjmujemy średnią 1,2kg/dm3, czyli inaczej mówiąc 1200kg/m3. Przyjmuje się że powinno się nakładać około 0,6kg/m2 co daje nam grubość 0,5mm utwardzonego topkotu.
Waga laminatu konstrukcyjnego (nie uwzględnia się warstw żelkotu i topkotu):

Przykład 1:

Obliczyć ciężar laminatu o grubości 12mm , powierzchni 3,76m2, ciężarze właściwym 1500kg/m3:

Przykład 2:

Obliczyć ciężar elementu z laminatu o grubości 12mm , powierzchni 3,76m2, ciężarze właściwym 1500kg/m3 uwzględniając wagę żelkotu – 0,8kg/m2 i topkotu -0,6kg/m2:

O ile nie ma problemu z oszacowaniem powierzchni i założeniem grubości, o tyle ciężar właściwy laminatu może sprawić trudności.

Laminat składa się z 2 elementów: włókna i żywicy , których ciężary właściwe znacznie się różnią, ciężar laminatu jest wypadkową zawartości zbrojenia.
Włókno szklane [ciężar właściwy ok. 2500kg/m3] jest cięższe od żywicy [ciężar właściwy ok. 1100kg/m3], więc im wyższa zawartość włókna tym większy ciężar właściwy laminatu.

Ciężar właściwy laminatu (mamy na myśli żywicę ze zbrojeniem, bez warstwy żelkotu i topkotu) o założonej zawartości zbrojenia można obliczyć w taki sposób :

Przykład nr. 3

Obliczyć ciężar właściwy laminatu o zawartości zbrojenia 46%.

Poniżej zestawienie ciężaru laminatu w zależności od procentowej zawartości zbrojenia (nie uwzględnia żelkotu i topkotu):
Zawartość zbrojenia zależy w dużym stopniu od technologii przetwarzania kompozytu, technologie takie jak pultruzja, nawijanie pozwalają uzyskać nawet 70% zawartość zbrojenia, technologia laminowania ręcznego to 20-60% zawartości zbrojenia.
Przy technologii laminowania ręcznego zawartość zbrojenia również bardzo zależy od geometrii wyrobu – jeżeli kształt jest skomplikowany i jest dużo laminowania przy użyciu pędzli, małych wałków-  zawartość zbrojenia będzie niższa. Z kolei na elementach o kształtach prostych, gdzie można korzystać z twardych wałków zawartość zbrojenia będzie wyższa.

Przykład nr. 4:

a) Obliczyć ciężar elementu z rysunku nr.1  przyjmując taki diagram laminowania:

żelkot 0,8 km/m2
laminat 2 x CSM 300 + 2 x CSM 600 kg/m2
topkot 0,6 kg/m2
zawartość zbrojenia 30 %

b) sprawdzić obliczenia przyjmując ze podane gramatury maty szklanej przy zawartości zbrojenia 30% dadzą laminat o grubości 4mm:
1. Waga laminatu
Jak widać przy 2 różnych metodach błąd jest na poziomie 0,5kg , czyli w ujęciu procentowym tylko 1% wagi całego wyrobu.

Jeśli chcesz otrzymywać powiadomienia o nowościach na naszej stronie  raz w miesiącu oraz mieć wgląd do archiwum:

Dołacz do Newslettera

Paweł Tryzna

Przedstawiciel handlowy
Doradca techniczny
Koordynator wdrożeń nowych produktów i technologii

Biuro w Giżycku
kom. 691 999 599
fax 087 428 25 43
e-mail:Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Aby go zobaczyć, konieczne jest włączenie w przeglądarce obsługi JavaScript.


Drug dealer from Ilford waves knife on the street in police surveillance picture A drug dealer was caught on camera waving a knife in a street during a police surveillance operation which helped jail him for nearly six years. Damian George, 20, from Ilford, Essex, was one of seven jailed following a police plain clothes operation targeting heroin and crack cocaine dealers in Brighton, East Sussex. He had acted as the right hand man to gang ringleader Remy Douieb, 22, from Hassocks, West Sussex, and oversaw resupplies to the drug 'runners'. Drug dealer Damian George, 20, (pictured) was caught on camera waving a knife in a street during a police surveillance operation which helped jail him for nearly six years George, from Ilford, Essex, was one of seven jailed following a police plain clothes operation targeting heroin and crack cocaine dealers in Brighton, East Sussex pre bonded hairBut he was caught on an undercover camera waving the blade, and when he was arrested was carrying a black imitation hand gun. George was jailed at Lewes Crown Court for five years and eight months, while Douieb was sentenced to six years behind bars after the court was told he would hold 'deal' phones and direct runners to users to supply drugs. The thug had already served time after a robbery in Reading, when he attacked a seven-month pregnant woman, who had complained to him about selling drugs outside her mother's house. George was caught on an undercover camera waving the blade, and when he was arrested was carrying a black imitation hand gun Judge Shani Barnes said: 'During the attack you told that woman that you were a man with no morals. I sincerely hope you find some during this sentence.'

Both George and Douieb were part of a drug dealing network known locally as 'Ricky', which was targeted by police as part of Operation Cooden. Police said the gang, jailed for a total of 23 years, had been responsible for two heroin related deaths. Inquests found that both Dennis Walsh, 48, and Madeline Stokes, 20, died of drug overdoses. Geoffrey Momoh, 24, of Harlow, Essex, was sentenced to three and a half years, Dean Temple, 38, of Brighton, was sentenced to 28 months and Sam Povall, 31, of no fixed address, was sentenced to 27 months. Scott Collins, 37, from Brighton was regarded by police as a runner for the group and was sentenced to four years. The seventh gang member, Charlie Magrino, who is now 18 but was 17 at the time of the offending, of Haringey, north London, was sentenced to two years suspended for two years. remy hair extensionsAddressing the seven, on Friday, June 24, Judge Barnes said: 'I cannot sentence you for the deaths of those poor people but I will name them and they will not be forgotten. 'You were all heavily involved in this prolific, callous and brazen drug dealing which is not low level. 'You plied your filthy trade in front of children and families playing on the beach amongst other areas. I would not be doing my duty to the community if I did not pass severe custodial sentences.' All of the other 43 people arrested as part of Operation Cooden pleaded guilty to offences including possession with intent to supply Class A and other conspiracies related to drugs supply. Detective Sergeant Julian Deans, who was the Deputy Senior Investigating Officer, said: 'It takes hours and hours of painstaking work behind the scenes in the shadows to build a case of this nature. Remy Douieb (left) , 22, was the ringleader of the drug dealing network known locally as 'Ricky', and was jailed for six years, Dean Temple, 38,  (right) of Brighton, was sentenced to 28 months Sam Povall, 31, (left) of no fixed address, was sentenced to 27 months. Scott Collins, 37, (right) from Brighton was regarded by police as a runner for the group and was sentenced to four years 'I am pleased to have been able to rid the city of this group. 'The likes of Douieb and George thought that they could just bring their knives and guns to protect their heroin business into this city and this was met head on by our team. 'My thoughts also go out to every family that is affected by heroin. I have both the fortune and misfortune to witness both sides of the trade. 'I live a surreal life at times, where I witness drug dealers peddling their death on the streets of Brighton and then end up investigating the end product of that trade by investigating every heroin death.'

Chris Rock's 33-year-old girlfriend Megalyn Echikunwoke flashed a diamond ring on her wedding finger on Saturday evening while at the Apollo in the Hamptons 2016 party in New York City. The timing is interesting as the next day the comedian finalized his divorce from wife of 20 years, Malaak Compton-Rock. The ring - a yellow gold double band with a small diamond - could be an engagement ring. As PageSix revealed on Thursday, a friend shared a clear image of the ring and added it was time to celebrate 'new beginnings,' strongly suggesting the standup could be on his way to another marriage. Bling it on! Chris Rock's girlfriend Megalyn Echikunwoke flashed diamond ring on wedding finger on Sunday the night before his divorce was finalized from wife of 10 years Malaak 'Last night we celebrated new beginnings . . . #lovewins,' the unidentified friend wrote in the caption. The site pointed out Echikunwoke seemed to take a dig at Malaak when she replied 'Bye, Felicia,' which is a catchphrase that pretty much translates to 'don't let the door hit you on the way out,' only not as polite. A friend added crying-laughter emojis.perruques cheveux naturels They look good together: The standup and Echikunwoke at the Governor's Ball at the 88th Academy Awards back in February; she does not appear to have the ring on here The post was then taken down. The beauty glowed as she held onto Rock, who was also in great spirits. She had on a lovely floral-print dress with spaghetti straps and her hair was worn down over her bare shoulders.

A source told PageSix, 'she always wears that ring,' which appears to be true as she has had it on several times in the past six months. They have been dating for one year and she lives at his New Jersey home. The last one: Rock and Malaak back in 2014; they have two daughters together and have raised an adopted daughter as well His rep then said Chris was '100 percent' not engaged. On Monday Chris and Malaak both appeared in a New Jersey courtroom to finalise the split, reported TMZ. The 51-year-old comic actor and his wife - who have been separated since 2014 -have two daughters Lola Simone, 14 and  Zahra Savanna, 12. Chris and Malaak Compton-Rock also appear to have been raising eight-year-old Ntombi, who first came to live with them from South Africa when she was six months old, according to the website, although details are unclear. In divorce papers, Malaak listed Ntombi-futhi Samantha as a dependent along with the Rocks’ two biological daughters. The kids: Chris with Malaak and children Lola, Zahra Savanna and Ntombi at the Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted premiere in NYC in 2012 She stated that in addition to their two children, there is a child 'who has resided with the parties since before her first birthday.' But rather mysteriously, a spokesman for Chris told TMZ he does not have an adopted child.perruques cheveux TMZ previously reported that back in 2008, the family took in Ntombi who remained in their house and was subsequently enrolled in a local school. She mingles with the big guns: Chris and Megalyn with Harvey Weinstein at the Apollo party The site added that the girl's parents were thought to be unemployed and from South Africa, although it is not known why she was living with the Rock family. They add that when Chris and Malaak began divorce proceedings, Chris maintained contact with his two biological daughters. However their divorce case is sealed so it is not known what settlement was reached. Meanwhile, Chris began dating actress Megalyn earlier this year. Megalyn, who has had recurring roles in 24, ER, CSI Miami, The 4400, 90210 and Damien, was most recently featured as the animal-powered Vixen in the TV series Arrow.

Madonna surprised fans with an unexpected appearance at a 25th anniversary screening of her documentary Truth Or Dare on Wednesday. The superstar showed up at the event held at the Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan to the delight of the 400 or so in the audience. The 58-year-old pop culture icon shared a couple of photos on her Instagram showing her standing between two on-screen images of herself from her Blond Ambition tour of 1990. 'Surreal moment!' she wrote alongside the picture.lace front wigs Scroll down for video 'Surreal moment!' Madonna surprised fans at a 25th anniversary screening of documentary Truth Or Dare and posed next to images of herself from the 1990 Blond Ambition Tour

Madonna: Truth Or Dare was first released in May 1991 and followed the Material Girl on tour and showed her behind-the-scenes with then-boyfriend Warren Beatty, praying with her backup dancers and facing arrest for public indecency at her concert in Toronto, Canada. 'So many freedoms we take for granted that we did not have then. Thank you Alek Keshishian. We changed history with this film.!' Madonna wrote. Keshishian directed the film that was shot in black and white. Who's that girl? The pop icon, who just turned 58, delighted the 400 or so fans gathered to watch the film at the museum Of Modern Art in Manhattan on Wednesday Demure: Madonna wore an off-he-shoulder red dress with white floral detailing and cinched at the waist with a black band for her surprise appearance Sharing 'a kiki': She was accompanied by her daughter Lourdes 'Lola' Leon, 19 In a second photo shared via her Instagram, she's seen sharing 'a kiki' with daughter Lourdes Leon or Lola as she calls her. Madonna wore a red off-the-shoulder dress with a flounce neckline and black spaghetti straps.cosplay wigs The frock features white floral detailing, half-sleeves and was cinched under the bust with a black band. She added a matching black and white floral patterned purse and wore her signature blonde hair styled in loose waves to her shoulders. Madonna had just returned from a birthday trip to Cuba with Lola, 19, and adopted children, 10-year-olds David and Mercy. Truth Or Dare AKA In Bed With Madonna showed behind-the-scenes footage of the singer including candid moments with then-boyfriend Warren Beatty and prayer circles with her dancers Getaway: Madonna recently celebrated her 58th birthday with a trip to Cuba accompanied by daughter Lola, 19, and her adopted children David and Mercy, both 10